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COSEWIC candidate wildlife species

Updated: December 6, 2019

List of wildlife species grouped by the type of wildlife and by its risk of extinction. Each species is assigned to one of 3 groups, depending on how urgently it needs to be assessed. Species in the highest urgency group are reviewed and ranked to create the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) candidate list.

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Part 1: overview

Many species in Canada have not yet been assessed by COSEWIC, but are suspected of being at some risk of extinction or extirpation. These species, referred to as ‘candidate wildlife species’ are identified by the species specialist subcommittees (SSCs) or by the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) subcommittee as candidates for detailed status assessment. Candidates may also include wildlife species already assessed by COSEWIC as not at risk or data deficient, but where new information suggests they may be at risk.

SSC and ATK subcommittee members use their expert knowledge and judgment to identify candidate wildlife species. They draw on numerous sources of information including (where available) the General Status of Wild Species in Canada program, information drawn from other multi-jurisdictional monitoring, jurisdictional and international assessment processes (e.g. IUCN and NatureServe) and published ranking systems in the scientific literature. As time and resources allow, COSEWIC will commission status reports for high priority candidate wildlife species so that an assessment can be undertaken.

Status reports are commissioned by COSEWIC through an open competition. A call for bids is periodically posted on this website both for selected candidate species, and also for species already assessed by COSEWIC that require a reassessment. You can register to be notified when new calls for bids are posted on the website.

For more information on candidate wildlife species, visit COSEWIC wildlife species assessment: process, categories, and guidelines.


Part 2: COSEWIC candidate list

The highest priority wildlife species from the SSC candidate lists are reviewed and ranked by COSEWIC, and result in COSEWIC candidate list. COSEWIC bases its ranking on prioritization data submitted by each SSC. COSEWIC candidate list identifies the highest priority candidate wildlife species for status report production. Wildlife species included in this list include those not yet assessed by COSEWIC and those in the not at risk or data deficient categories, where new information suggests they may be at risk of extinction or extirpation from Canada.

2015 (1) species

Common name: Hornless Oakworm Moth

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Anisota finlaysoni

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: This moth ranges in Canada only along the northeastern shore of Lake Ontario, Ontario. The species habitat includes oak woodland and dry forest edges, and may also persist in cleared land with scattered larger oak trees. The majority of this habitat has been historically lost to agriculture or development and there is increased pressure for land conversion to viticulture in the Prince Edward County region. Substantial threats from habitat loss through deforestation/fragmentation, larval mortality due to introduced biocontrol agent, pesticide application for gypsy moth or tent caterpillar control, and possibly also urban lighting.

2016 (2) species

Common name: Ashy Pebblesnail

Taxonomic group: Molluscs

Scientific name: Fluminicola fuscus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: This freshwater snail was historically sporadically distributed in the Columbia River and a few major tributaries in five states and BC. Populations have been lost from most tributaries and almost all the Columbia River itself; impoundment, nutrient enhancement, warming, and loss of rocky substrate are threats. In Canada, this snail was collected approximately 150 years ago, and has not been seen since until it was recently (2012-2014) collected in the Columbia River near Trail, BC. It is uncertain if it still lives at the historical occupied Kootenay and Wigwam river sites in BC.

Common name: Nevada Buckmoth

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Hemileuca nevadensis

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Alberta, Canadian Wildlife Service, Manitoba, Parks Canada Agency, Saskatchewan

Proposed call for bids date: 2018

Rationale: This species is a large, charismatic day-flying moth in the giant silkworm family (Saturniidae). In Canada, this species is restricted to two types of specific habitats where it occurs as very isolated populations. In Alberta, Saskatchewan and western Manitoba, it occurs only on sand dunes of the parkland ecoregion where stunted aspen trees predominate. In southeastern Manitoba and adjacent Ontario, this species is known from several populations in mesic tallgrass prairie/carr complexes with abundant willows. Such habitat secialization and a small geographic range suggest that the species may be at risk.

2017 (2) species

Common name: Cupped Fringe Lichen

Taxonomic group: Lichens

Scientific name: Heterodermia hypoleuca

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2018

Rationale: This species is a rare gray leafy lichen that forms colonies up to about 5 cm in diameter distinguished by cup-shaped fruit bodies and woolly lobe tips. It is found in southern Ontario and southern Quebec as well as in the New England states of the USA. It appears to be exhibiting a range contraction towards Canada. The lichen grows on old deciduous trees in shaded valleys and forested floodplains. It is threatened by deforestation, land use developments, and climate change.

Common name: Fan Moss

Taxonomic group: Mosses

Scientific name: Forsstroemia trichomitria

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2018

Rationale: This moss is a large epiphytic species that was recorded in southern Ontario several times prior to 1900, yet despite its distinctive appearance and size, had not been recorded again until 2011 and again in 2014. This suggests a significant population decline, one that is supported by an apparent species' decline also in northeastern US.

2018 (16) species

Common name: [a liverwort]

Taxonomic group: Mosses

Scientific name: Apotreubia hortoniae

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Apotreubia hortoniae is a rare liverwort that is restricted to hyperoceanic climate and known from only a handful of sites at Haida Gwai and nearby islands. Potential threats include tourist infrastructure, wood harvesting and quarrying.

Common name: [a moss]

Taxonomic group: Mosses

Scientific name: Sphagnum cyclophyllum

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Sphagnum cyclophyllum is a rare coastal plain peat moss restricted to two sites in southern Nova Scotia. Potential threats include ATV use and peat harvest. The species may also be vulnerable to multiple impacts of sea level rise.

Common name: Big-tooth Whitelip

Taxonomic group: Molluscs

Scientific name: Neohelix dentifera

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency, Quebec

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: This is one of only two species of large-shell terrestrial snails belonging to the genus Neohelix in Canada. It is a rare species at the northern limit of its range in southern Ontario and Quebec and likely always has been rare in Canada and in the US. Most of historical occurrence sites have already been lost through habitat loss and degradation. Other threats might be invasive species, climate change and anthropogenic pressure.

Common name: Boreal Awningclam

Taxonomic group: Molluscs

Scientific name: Solemya borealis

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Atlantic Ocean, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Boreal Awningclam is one of the few species from the family Solemyidae living in Canadian waters. This marine species is at the northern limit of its range off Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Like other species of Solemyidae, it forms symbiotic associations with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria that live in its gills and provide it with nutrients. It burrows in fine, organic-rich mud at a range of depths (0-500 m); the presence of this species in intertidal muds, as observed recently off Nova Scotia, is rare. The species appears to have been fairly common in offshore sediments, but is now infrequently collected. Threats are uncertain.

Common name: California Sword Fern

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Polystichum californicum

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: This species is known in Canada from only two sites in British Columbia. It is likely intrinsically vulnerable due to low dispersal rates and difficulty in becoming established in appropriate limestone habitats. There is some risk of quarrying and/or mining impacting this species.

Common name: Duke's Skipper

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Euphyes dukesi

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: The Duke's Skipper is restricted to extreme southwestern Ontario, and inhabits shady graminoid open marshy areas adjacent to, or within woodlands. Threats include decline in habitat quality and extent through draining, infilling and diversion of water and wetlands; contamination of the wetland habitat, and the spread of non-native plants that out-compete the species host plants thereby leading to the decline of the skipper. The skipper is of conservation concern in all parts of their range.

Common name: Dwarf Western Trillium

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Trilium ovatum hibbersonii

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: This species occurs only on western Vancouver Island, at a handful of remote and relatively inaccessible sites. Threats include mostly collateral damage from construction of logging roads, increased forest cover as succession proceeds, and rock gardeners who remove plants from the wild.

Common name: Eastern Red Bat

Taxonomic group: Terrestrial mammals

Scientific name: Lasiurus borealis

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Alberta, British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency, Quebec, Saskatchewan

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Populations of three species of migratory bats, the Hoary Bat, Silver-haired Bat, and Red Bat have experienced recent declines in their North American populations. The species breed across much the forested parts of Canada and overwinter in the southern United States.

Common name: Gaspe Grasshopper

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Melanoplus gaspesiensis

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Quebec

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: The Gaspe Grasshopper (Melanoplus gaspesiensis) is globally restricted to the summit of Mount Albert in the Gaspé in Québec and is believed to have survived in refugia during various glacial episodes, most recently the Wisconsinan. The species and its habitat are threatened from climate change and possibly mining and mineral extraction.

Common name: Hoary Bat

Taxonomic group: Terrestrial mammals

Scientific name: Lasiurus cinereus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Alberta, British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Populations of three species of migratory bats, the Hoary Bat, Silver-haired Bat, and Red Bat have experienced recent declines in their North American populations. The species breed across much the forested parts of Canada and overwinter in the southern United States.

Common name: Johnson's Hairstreak

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Callophrys johnsoni

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: The Johnson's Hairstreak (Callophrys johnsoni) is a small brown butterfly that ranges in the lower elevation old growth forests on the west coast of British Columbia. The larvae depend exclusively on exposed Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe (fungus), which tends to grow at the tops or sun-exposed parts of Western Hemlock stands. The species appears to have declined due to logging of old growth timber, and active management to control Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe, thereby limiting its habitat.

Common name: Oak Hairstreak

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Satyrium favonius

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: The Oak Hairstreak (Satyrium favonius) is an open meadow habitat species, restricted to southern Ontario. After almost 100 years, the species was confirmed from Point Pelee National Park in 1999 when a single individual was recorded at Point Pelee National Park, but has not been seen again since despite very heavy survey effort. There is one additional location in Canada (Reid Conservation Area, Lambton Co.) recorded in 2008. Threats include agricultural land conversion, invasive non-native plants out-competing the species host plants, and potentially grazing by native deer (of the host plants).

Common name: Pacific Lasiopogon

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Lasiopogon pacificus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: The Pacific Lasiopogon (Lasiopogon pacificus) is known from Vancouver to Oregon on coastal beaches and river banks. In Canada it is restricted to the lower Fraser River Valley from the Mission area west to Vancouver. It is known from four or five sites in Canada along the Fraser River. Many of the beaches and riparian areas in the Fraser Valley have been destroyed in the past decades, however suitable habitat remains.

Common name: Pumpkin Ash

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Fraxinus profunda

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Pumpkin Ash has a relatively limited range within Canada, with Ontario occurrences being the northernmost in the world. Pumpkin Ash is probably climatically limited to a very small zone of southernmost Ontario in which most natural habitat has been converted to human uses. The Emerald Ash Borer also threatens this species.

Common name: Short-billed Dowitcher

Taxonomic group: Birds

Scientific name: Limnodromus griseus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Alberta, British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, Nunavut Territory, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Short-billed Dowitcher is a long-billed, medium-sized shorebird that breeds in northern boreal wetlands and winters along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Central and northern South America. Surveys at migratory stopover locations and wintering sites along the northern coast of South America indicate a population decline of 70-85% since the 1970s. Potential causes of this decline remain unclear, but are likely to include loss of habitat throughout its life cycle, as well as hunting in Latin America.

Common name: Silver-haired Bat

Taxonomic group: Terrestrial mammals

Scientific name: Lasionycteris noctivagans

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Alberta, British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory

Proposed call for bids date: 2019

Rationale: Populations of three species of migratory bats, the Hoary Bat, Silver-haired Bat, and Red Bat have experienced recent declines in their North American populations. The species breed across much the forested parts of Canada and overwinter in the southern United States.

2019 (21) species

Common name: [a darkling beetle]

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Ephalus latimanus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This flightless beetle is known in Canada only from Sable Island, Nova Scotia and is perhaps an ice age relict from the Georges Bank refugia. Elsewhere it ranges on coastal dunes on the US Atlantic seaboard from New Jersey to Maine. This species is a common nocturnal species on sand dunes throughout its range. The species lives in loose sand and leaf litter around the roots and at the base of plants such as sea rocket, Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hook. (Brassicaceae), and seaside goldenrod, Solidago sempervirens L. (Asteraceae).

Common name: Atlantic Mackerel

Taxonomic group: Marine fishes

Scientific name: Scomber scombrus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Atlantic Ocean, Canadian Wildlife Service, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: Atlantic Mackerel is found in the waters of the Northwest Atlantic from North Carolina to Newfoundland. During spring and summer, Atlantic Mackerel is found in inshore waters. From late fall and in winter, it is found deeper in warmer waters at the edge of the continental shelf. In Canadian waters, spawning occurs mainly in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence during June and July. Atlantic Mackerel have declined about 80% since the late 1990s. Overfishing is considered the main threat.

Common name: Bronze Pinecone

Taxonomic group: Molluscs

Scientific name: Strobilops aeneus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: Strobilops aeneus is a small, rare land snail that only occurs in southern Ontario from the Ottawa Valley to Essex County. It is possibly present in southwestern Quebec (Gatineau), having been recorded there from a cave infill, but no living snails have been found in Quebec. Two records from the Maritimes were misidentifications. Altogether, only 8 records are known and only 3 (from 2 sites) since 1941 (Forsyth and Oldham 2014); the Ottawa site was revisited and reconfirmed in 2016. This species was always rare and sporadic in Ontario (Oughton 1948); it occurs only in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone, lives in rich, old-growth forests, and is likely under threat due to loss and degradation of habitat. Some of historical occurrence sites are likely to have been lost through habitat loss and degradation. Current threats might include invasive species (such as earthworms, which change forest floor structure and eliminate microhabitat) and anthropogenic pressures.

Common name: Canadian Toad

Taxonomic group: Amphibians

Scientific name: Anaxyrus hemiophrys

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Alberta, Canadian Wildlife Service, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Parks Canada Agency, Saskatchewan

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: Canadian Toad is a wide-ranging species with approximately 90% of its global distribution in Canada. The species has declined drastically in parts of Alberta over the past few decades with shrinkage of its range eastward. Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation from agriculture, oil and gas exploration and extraction, forestry, and associated expanding road network, emerging epidemic diseases, and climate change. Life history characteristics, particularly late age at maturity (3 -5 years) and the possibility that females may breed only once in their life time, hinder the ability of populations to rebound after disturbances.

Common name: Cleland's Evening-primrose

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Oenothera clelandii

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This annual/biennial wildflower has a small and localized distribution in Ontario and occurs in very low numbers. Threatened by habitat loss, disturbance and climate change, it has very few extant sites recorded in recent years and is considered critically imperilled in Ontario.

Common name: Forked Bluecurls

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Trichostema dichotomum

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency, Quebec

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: Forked Bluecurls is an annual in the mint family (Lamiaceae), widespread in the eastern USA but reaching Canada in only 8-9 subpopulations in southernmost Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia. Numbers are low (unknown in Ontario, 5,000 to 10,000 in Quebec and 300 in Nova Scotia) and plants occur over only 3.6 hectares in Canada. Ontario and Quebec occurrences are in sand barrens subject to the impacts of invasive species, all-terrain vehicles, land conversion for other uses, and natural succession in the absence of fire. The Nova Scotia plants occur in a single, relatively remote rock barren opening potentially threatened by unauthorized all-terrain vehicle use and gold mining.

Common name: Globose Dome

Taxonomic group: Molluscs

Scientific name: Ventridens ligera

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This is one of only three species of large-shell terrestrial snails belonging to the genus Ventridens potentially in Canada. It is a rare species at the northern limit of its range in south-western Ontario and likely always has been rare in Canada. Some of historical occurrences have already been lost through habitat loss and degradation. Other threats might be invasive species, climate change and anthropogenic pressure (pollution and disturbance).

Common name: Gray-cheeked Thrush (minimus subspecies)

Taxonomic group: Birds

Scientific name: Catharus minimus minimus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Newfoundland and Labrador, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This species breeds only on the island of Newfoundland and a small portion of adjacent Labrador and possibly extreme eastern Quebec. Recent studies support the genetic, geographic, and morphological distinctions between this subspecies and the Northern Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. m. aliciae), which breeds across the boreal forest from Alaska to Labrador. The Newfoundland Gray-cheeked Thrush nests primarily in old-growth Balsam Fir forests, as well as shrubby deciduous thickets. Although it was widespread and numerous in Newfoundland until at the least mid-1980s, it has undergone a rapid decline and is now considered rare, with a provincial status of Threatened. Breeding Bird Survey data indicate a population decline of 68% between 2005 and 2015, and an overall 90% loss over the past 35 years. This is likely a function of multiple threats, most notably nest predation by Red Squirrel, loss of old growth forest nesting habitat, and deforestation of wintering grounds in Colombia.

Common name: Greenland Shark

Taxonomic group: Marine fishes

Scientific name: Somniosus microcephalus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Canadian Wildlife Service, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: The Greenland shark is a very large sleeper shark commonly found in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic and Arctic waters. Greenland Sharks have an extremely conservative life history. Longevity was recently estimated to be the highest documented for any vertebrate, at 392 years. The generation time is estimated as 154 to 198 years. Bycatch of Greenland Shark is the main threat. This bycatch occurs mostly in shrimp and Greenland Halibut fisheries. While reported bycatch has declined, lack of reporting on logbooks, variable at-sea observer coverage, and inaccurate weight estimates create concern.

Common name: Hoary Edge

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Achalarus lyciades

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This butterfly inhabits the fragmented and at-risk open woodlands, deciduous mixed forest and sandy areas of southern Ontario. Although common farther south, the Hoary Edge is extremely rare in Canada, with under ten records known to date; these are all from the same area although an undocumented colony may exist. Only one generation occurs in the northern part of its range (two farther south), with adults on the wing from early June to early July in Ontario.

Common name: Large-lipped Sand Beetle

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Omophron labiatum

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This beetle is only known in Canada from Sable Island, and is disjunct from the nearest known populations in New England and Massachusetts. The species occurs in open, sandy, and usually damp ground along the coastal zone, from sea beaches inland to altitudes up to about 275 m, as well as saline beaches or on the bare shores of ponds, lakes and rivers. The species is nocturnal, and adults appear to be gregarious, so it is often found in large numbers where it occurs.

Common name: Pyramid Dome

Taxonomic group: Molluscs

Scientific name: Ventridens intertextus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This is one of only three species of large-shell terrestrial snails in the genus Ventridens potentially in Canada. It is a rare species at the northern limit of its range in southwestern Ontario and likely always has been rare in Canada. Some of historical occurrence sites have already been lost through habitat loss and degradation. Other threats might be invasive species (earthworms, which change forest floor structure and eliminate microhabitat), climate change, and anthropogenic pressures.

Common name: Rough-leaved Aster

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Eurybia radulina

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: Rough-leaved aster (Eurybia radulina (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom) is a perennial herb with few to several, ascending to erect short-hairy stems, 10-70 cm tall. Stem leaves broadly oblanceolate or spoon-shaped, to 13 cm long, hairy, toothed. Flowering heads with ray and disk flowers; ray flowers white to pale violet; disk flowers yellow. Occurs on dry rock outcrops and open forests in the lowland zone of SE Vancouver Island; known from 4 sites but may occur at one or more of 7 historical sites.

Common name: Sable Island Borer

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Papaipema sp.

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This moth is an undescribed subspecies of Noctuid moth that is globally endemic to Sable Island, Nova Scotia. The larval host is unknown, but it may bore the roots and stems of a single Asteraceae like related species. The larvae of the sister species on mainland Nova Scotia (P. nelita) bore into stems and roots of the aster Cutleaf Coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.).Adult records are from mid-August and mid-September and are attracted to lights. The habitat is unknown but there are limited possibilities (i.e. grassland/herbaceous, sand/dune, shrubland/chaparral) on Sable Island which is treeless, sandy and dry.

Common name: Sable Island Cutworm Moth

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Agrotis arenarius

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This species is a Noctuid moth endemic to Sable Island, Nova Scotia. The moth has an annual life cycle and is dependent on Ammophila grasses. These grasses are native to coasts of the North Atlantic and are found almost exclusively on the first line of coastal sand dunes, have creeping underground stems or rhizomes allow them to thrive under conditions of shifting sands and high winds, and help to stabilize and prevent coastal erosion. Many species in this genus are of great importance as cutworms, major agricultural pests whose larvae hide by day and emerge at night to feed. Not all species in this genus are agricultural pests.

Common name: Sable Island Eucosma

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Eucosma sableana

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This moth is globally endemic to Sable Island, Nova Scotia. The moth presumably has a 1-year life cycle. The larval food plant is unknown. Eucosma sableana is closely related to the widespread species E. ochrocephala, which feeds on cocklebur (Xanthium spp.) as a larva. Xanthium does not occur on Sable Island, but perhaps the food plant is another Asteraceae species. It is noted as being "common at light in August and September".

Common name: Sable Island Leaf Beetle

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Tricholochmaea sablensis

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Nova Scotia, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This species appears to be a post-glacial relict species found only on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. It has been collected from bog cranberry (Vaccinmium macrocarpon), which is restricted to a cranberry bog near a small freshwater lake on Sable Island. The lake, which had a salinity of 25 ppm was less saline than any of the surrounding lakes. Collecting on Sable Island in 1976-77 and 1989 failed to find any on Sable Island and recent work in 2004 has also failed to turn up any specimens, casting some doubt on whether the species is still extant.

Common name: Short-fruited Rush

Taxonomic group: Vascular plants

Scientific name: Juncus brachycarpus

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This perennial rush is restricted in Canada to remnants of moist, sandy prairie in Windsor, Ontario. Major threats include residential and commercial development, transportation corridor development, invasive species and encroachment of trees and shrubs in the prairie habitat due to lack of fire.

Common name: Valley Grasshopper

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Oedaleontus enigma

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This grasshopper is associated with arid shrub-steppe in the intermountain west and reaches its northern limit in the southern Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Within its Canadian range, it is highly localized and has only been recorded at one site; a parcel of provincial crown land that is under threat of annexation for conversion to residential housing by the Town of Osoyoos. In the US portion of its range, this species sometimes increases to outbreak proportions and is considered a range pest, although it is primarily a forb and shrub feeder and will feed heavily on introduced forbs that themselves degrade range condition. Native host plants include spring parsley, balsamroot, big sagebrush, and rabbitbrush as well as several introduced weeds: redstem filaree, flixweed, and downy brome.

Common name: White-marked Tussock Moth (Sable Island spp.)

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Orgyia leucostigma sablensis

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This moth is globally endemic to Sable Island, Nova Scotia. The species was described as an endemic subspecies of the more widespread White-marked Tussock Moth, based on collections from Sable Island in the 1970s. Larvae were collected from blueberry, cranberry, iris, bayberry and both grasses and sedges. On the mainland other subspecies of White-marked Tussock Moth larvae feed on a wide variety of plants including both conifers and flowering plants. Adults have been collected from early August into mid-September.

Common name: White-winged Grasshopper

Taxonomic group: Arthropods

Scientific name: Dissosteira spurcata

Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions: British Columbia, Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency

Proposed call for bids date: 2020

Rationale: This grasshopper is associated with arid shrub-steppe in the intermountain west. It reaches its northern limit in the southern Okanagan Valley. Within its Canadian range, it is highly localized and has been recently recorded at only two sites. One is a Haynes Lease Wildlife Area at the north end of Osoyoos Lake and the other is a parcel of crown land on the west side of Osoyoos. While the wildlife area is secure, the crown land is under pressure for annexation and development by the town of Osoyoos. It is currently used for off-road driving and hiking. The species could also occur on the east side of Osoyoos Lake on the Osoyoos Indian Reserve. This would not greatly change the status of the species.

For a full copy of the COSEWIC candidate species rationale, please contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Part 3: species specialist subcommittees’ candidate list

Each SSC annually prepares and maintains a SSC candidate list of wildlife species that it considers at risk of extinction or extirpation nationally. Species on the SSC candidate lists are ranked into three priority groups by the SSCs to reflect the relative urgency with which each wildlife species should receive a COSEWIC assessment.

  • Group 1 contains wildlife species of highest priority for assessment by COSEWIC, and includes wildlife species suspected to be extirpated from Canada.
  • Groups 2 and 3 contain wildlife species that are of intermediate and lower priority for COSEWIC assessment, respectively.

Rationales for inclusion of wildlife species on the SSC candidate lists differ among the taxonomic groups considered by COSEWIC, reflecting the vast differences in their life history, and differences in our knowledge about the species.

Wildlife species in bold have been selected by COSEWIC for assessment and are currently planned for inclusion in a future call for bids.

Common name Scientific name Canadian range / known or potential jurisdictions

Amphibians (25)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Canadian Toad Anaxyrus hemiophrys AB, CWS, MB, NT, Parks, SK
Plains Spadefoot Spea bombifrons AB, CWS, MB, Parks, SK
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Northwestern Salamander Ambystoma gracile BC, CWS, Parks
Cope's Grey Treefrog Dryophytes chrysoscelis CWS, MB, Parks
Ensatina Ensatina eschscholtzii BC, CWS, Parks
Four-toed Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum CWS, NB, NS, ON, Parks, QC
Eastern Red-backed Salamander Plethodon cinereus CWS, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Columbia Spotted Frog Rana luteiventris AB, BC, CWS, Parks, WMAC-NS, YFWMB, YT
Pickerel Frog Rana palustris CWS, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Rough-skinned Newt Taricha granulosa BC, CWS, Parks
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Blue-spotted Salamander Ambystoma laterale CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Long-toed Salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum AB, BC, CWS, Parks
Spotted Salamander Ambystoma maculatum CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
American Toad Anaxyrus americanus CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Northern Two-lined Salamander Eurycea bislineata CWS, NL, ON, Parks, QC
Gray Treefrog Hyla versicolor CWS, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
American Bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus CWS, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Green Frog Lithobates clamitans CWS, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Mink Frog Lithobates septentrionalis CWS, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Wood Frog Lithobates sylvaticus AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Eastern Newt Notophthalmus viridescens CWS, NB, NL, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Western Red-backed Salamander Plethodon vehiculum BC, CWS, Parks
Spring Peeper Pseudacris crucifer CWS, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Boreal Chorus Frog Pseudacris maculata AB, BC, CWS, MB, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK, YT
Northern Pacific Treefrog Pseudacris regilla BC, CWS, Parks

Arthropods (99)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Hoary Edge Achalarus lyciades CWS, ON, Parks
Sable Island Cutworm Moth Agrotis arenarius CWS, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Andrena caerulea BC, CWS, Parks
Hornless Oakworm Moth Anisota finlaysoni CWS, ON, Parks
Protean Shieldback Atlanticus testaceus CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Calliopsis scitula BC, CWS, Parks
Johnson's Hairstreak Callophrys johnsoni BC, CWS, Parks
Pacific Coast Tiger Beetle Cicindela bellisimi BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Copablepharon viridisparsa AB, CWS, MB, Parks, SK
White-winged Grasshopper Dissosteira spurcata BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Ephalus latimanus CWS, Parks
Sable Island Eucosma Eucosma sableana CWS, NS, Parks
Duke's Skipper Euphyes dukesi CWS, ON, Parks
Nevada Buckmoth Hemileuca nevadensis AB, CWS, MB, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Hystrichopsylla schefferi BC, CWS, Parks
Pacific Lasiopogon Lasiopogon pacificus BC, CWS, Parks
Edith's Copper Lycaena editha AB, BC, CWS, Parks
Strecker's Giant Skipper Megathymus streckeri AB, CWS, Parks
Gaspe Grasshopper Melanoplus gaspesiensis CWS, Parks, QC
Valley Grasshopper Oedaleontus enigma BC, CWS, Parks
Large-lipped Sand Beetle Omophron labiatum CWS, NS, Parks
White-marked Tussock Moth (Sable Island spp.) Orgyia leucostigma sablensis CWS, Parks
Golden Borer Moth Papaipema cerina CWS, ON, Parks
Sable Island Borer Papaipema sp. CWS, NS, Parks
Canadian Philaronia Philaronia canadensis CWS, ON, Parks
Oak Hairstreak Satyrium favonius CWS, ON, Parks
Long-spined Jerusalem Cricket Stenopelmatus longispinus BC, CWS, Parks
Sable Island Leaf Beetle Tricholochmaea sablensis CWS, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Triepeolus brittaini CWS, NB, NS, Parks, PE
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Barren's Dagger Moth Acronicta albarufa CWS, MB, ON, Parks
Beller's Ground Beetle Agonum belleri BC, CWS, Parks
Oslar's Roadside Skipper Amblyscirtes oslari AB, CWS, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Andrena edwardsi BC, CWS, Parks
Parasitic Wasp Apantes samarshalli CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Argyresthia flexilis AB, BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Austrotyla borealis AB, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Bombus morrisoni BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Bombus vandykei BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Bombus variabilis CWS, Parks, QC
Moss's Elfin Callophrys mossii BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Cambarus bartonii CWS, NB, ON, Parks, QC
Whitney's Underwing Catocala whitneyi CWS, MB, Parks
Hoffmann's Checkerspot Chlosyne hoffmanni BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Coleotechnites lewisi AB, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Copablepharon hopfingerii BC, CWS, Parks
Eastern Tailed Blue (British Columbia population) Cupido comyntas BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Dendrotettix quercus CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Dicromantispa sayi CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Dufourea monardae CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Ellipes gurneyi CWS, ON, Parks
Ghost Tiger Beetle Ellipsoptera lepida AB, CWS, MB, ON, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Eristalis brousii CWS, Parks
Propertius Duskywing Erynnis propertius BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Eumenes bollii CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Euxoa unica CWS, Parks, SK
Pahaska Skipper Hesperia pahaska CWS, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Hesperotettix viridis BC, CWS, Parks
Carr's Diving Beetle Hydroporus carri AB, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Hyperaspis brunnescens CWS, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Lasioglossum yukonae BC, CWS, Parks, YT
(common name not available) Lasionycta macleani BC, CWS, Parks
Minor Ground Mantid Litaneutria minor AB, BC, CWS, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Lypoglossa manitobae CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Megaphorus willistoni BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Melanoplus digitifer BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Melanoplus rugglesi BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Melanoplus scudderi CWS, ON, Parks
Rocky Mountain Grasshopper Melanoplus spretus AB, CWS, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Melanoplus walshii CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Metator nevadensis BC, CWS, Parks
Contracted Bombing Beetle Metrius contractus contractus BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Naemia seriata CWS, NB, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Nebria charlottae BC, CWS, Parks
Gwaii Haanas Ground Beetle Nebria louisae BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Nephus intrusus CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Nicocles rufus BC, CWS, Parks
Simius Roadside Skipper Notamblyscirtes simius CWS, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Oecanthus laricis CWS, ON, Parks
Gaspé Arctic Oeneis bore gaspeensis CWS, Parks, QC
(common name not available) Omus dejeanii BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Pachybrachis calcaratus CWS, Parks
Indra Swallowtail subspecies Papilio indra indra BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Philonthus turbo CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Polites rhesus CWS, Parks
Sandhill Skipper Polites sabuleti BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Prosimulium doveri BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Scaphinotus merkeli BC, CWS, Parks
False Indigo Flower Moth Schinia lucens CWS, MB, Parks
(common name not available) Scymnus cervicalis CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Scymnus fraternus CWS, ON, Parks, QC
(common name not available) Scymnus securus CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Sogda enigma CWS, Parks
Bremner's Zerene Fritillary Speyeria zerene bremnerii BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Stereus arenarius AB, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Stichopogon fragilis BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Stygobromus quatsinensis BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Trichiusa robustula CWS, ON, Parks
Olympic Peninsula Millipede Tubaphe levii BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Xanthorhoe clarkeata BC, CWS, Parks

Birds (33)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Ruddy Turnstone, morinella subspecies Arenaria interpres morinella CWS, NT, NU, Parks, YT
Sanderling Calidris alba AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Dunlin Calidris alpina AB, BC, CMN, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus AB, CWS, MB, NT, NU, ON, Parks, QC, SK, YT
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla AB, BC, CWS, HFTCC, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, NWMB, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, YT
Gray-cheeked Thrush (minimus subspecies) Catharus minimus minimus CWS, NL, Parks
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris AB, ARRC, BC, CRRC, CTRRC, CWS, DDRRC, DKRRC, EMRWB, GRRB, LRRC, MB, MDRRC, NB, NJFMC, NL, NMRWB, NS, NT, NU, NWC, NWMB, NYRRC, ON, Parks, PCMB, PE, QC, SK, SRRB, SRRC, TRRC, TWPCB, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, WRRB, YFWMB, YT
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis AB, BC, CWS, MB, NT, NU, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
LeConte's Sparrow Ammospiza leconteii AB, BC, CWS, MB, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda AB, ARRC, BC, CMN, CRRC, CTRRC, CWS, DDRRC, DKRRC, LRRC, MB, MDRRC, NB, NT, NYRRC, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, SRRC, TRRC, YFWMB, YT
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus AB, BC, CWS, MB, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK, YT
Snowy Owl Nyctea scandiaca CWS, GRRB, HFTCC, MB, NL, NT, NU, NWMB, Parks, QC, SRRB, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, YFWMB, YT
Leach's Storm-Petrel (Pacfic population) Oceanodroma leucorhoa not available
American Golden-plover Pluvialis dominica AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Black-bellied Plover, cynosura subspecies Pluvialis squatarola cynosura CWS, NT, NU, Parks
Purple Martin Progne subis AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Blackpoll Warbler Setophaga striata AB, ARRC, BC, CMN, CRRC, CTRRC, CWS, DDRRC, DKRRC, EMRWB, GRRB, LRRC, MB, MDRRC, NB, NL, NMRWB, NS, NT, NU, NWC, NWMB, NYRRC, ON, Parks, PCMB, PE, QC, SK, SRRB, SRRC, TRRC, TWPCB, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, WRRB, YFWMB, YT
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea AB, ARRC, BC, CRRC, CTRRC, CWS, DDRRC, DKRRC, EMRWB, GRRB, LRRC, MB, MDRRC, NB, NJFMC, NL, NMRWB, NS, NT, NU, NWC, NWMB, NYRRC, ON, Parks, PCMB, PE, QC, SK, SRRB, SRRC, TWPCB, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, WRRB, YT
Bewick's Wren Thryomanes bewickii BC, CMN, CWS, Parks
Wandering Tattler Tringa incana BC, CWS, NT, Parks, YT
Pacific Wren Troglodytes pacificus AB, BC, CMN, CWS, Parks, YT
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Black Tern Chlidonias niger AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK, WRRB
Western Wood-Pewee Contopus sordidulus AB, BC, CMN, CWS, MB, NT, Parks, SK, YT
Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus AB, BC, CMN, CWS, MB, NT, ON, Parks, SK
American Kestrel Falco sparverius AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Yellow-billed Loon Gavia adamsii AB, BC, CWS, GRRB, MB, NT, NU, NWMB, Parks, QC, SRRB, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, WRRB, YFWMB, YT
Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis BC, CMN, CWS, Parks
Buller's Shearwater Puffinus bulleri BC, CMN, CWS, Parks
Pine Siskin Spinus pinus AB, ARRC, BC, CMN, CRRC, CTRRC, CWS, DDRRC, DKRRC, EMRWB, GRRB, HFTCC, LRRC, MB, MDRRC, MNJFC, NB, NL, NMRWB, NS, NT, NWC, NYRRC, ON, Parks, PCMB, PE, QC, SK, SRRB, SRRC, TRRC, TWPCB, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, WRRB, YFWMB, YT

Freshwater Fishes (69)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis AB, BC, CWS, DFO, FJMC, GRRB, HFTCC, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, NWMB, ON, Parks, QC, SK, SRRB, YFWMB, YT
European Whitefish Coregonus lavaretus CWS, DFO, NT, Parks, YT
Blackfin Cisco Coregonus nigripinnis CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus BC, CWS, DFO, Parks
Banded Killifish (Mainland populations) Fundulus diaphanus CWS, DFO, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC
Chestnut Lamprey (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence populations) Ichthyomyzon castaneus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Blackchin Shiner Notropis heterodon CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Coastal Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii BC, CWS, DFO, NJFMC, Parks, YT
Landlocked Arctic Char Salvelinus alpinus CWS, DFO, FJMC, GRRB, HFTCC, MB, NB, NL, NT, NU, NWMB, Parks, QC, SRRB, YFWMB, YT
Arctic Grayling (Western Arctic populations) Thymallus arcticus AB, BC, CWS, DFO, MB, NT, NU, Parks, SK, YT
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Cisco (Lake Herring) Coregonus artedi AB, BC, CWS, DFO, MB, NT, NU, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Arctic Cisco Coregonus autumnalis BC, CWS, DFO, NT, NU, Parks, YT
Least Cisco Coregonus sardinella BC, CWS, DFO, NT, NU, Parks, YT
Redbreast Sunfish Lepomis auritus CWS, DFO, NB, Parks
Northern Sunfish (Saskatchewan - Nelson River populations) Lepomis peltastes CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Silver Redhorse Moxostoma anisurum AB, CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Golden Redhorse Moxostoma erythrurum CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks
Greater Redhorse Moxostoma valenciennesi CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Fourhorn Sculpin (Freshwater form) Myoxocephalus quadricornis CWS, DFO, FJMC, NL, NT, NU, NWMB, Parks, WRRB
Hornyhead Chub Nocomis biguttatus CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks
Brindled Madtom Noturus miurus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Bull Trout (Upper Yukon Watershed populations) Salvelinus confluentus BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, YT
Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Inconnu Stenodus leucichthys BC, CWS, DFO, NT, Parks, YT
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus BC, CWS, DFO, Parks
Yellow Bullhead Ameiurus natalis CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Quillback Carpiodes cyprinus AB, CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Lake Whitefish (Mira River populations) Coregonus clupeaformis CWS, DFO, NS, Parks
Lake Whitefish (Simcoe Lake populations) Coregonus clupeaformis CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Bloater Coregonus hoyi CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Broad Whitefish Coregonus nasus BC, CWS, DFO, NT, NU, Parks, YT
Slimy Sculpin Cottus cognatus AB, BC, CWS, DFO, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK, YT
Spoonhead Sculpin Cottus ricei AB, BC, CWS, DFO, FJMC, GRRB, HFTCC, MB, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK, SRRB, WRRB, YFWMB, YT
Redfin Pickerel Esox americanus americanus CWS, DFO, Parks, QC
Muskellunge Esox masquinongy CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Chain Pickerel Esox niger CWS, DFO, Parks, QC
Greenside Darter Etheostoma blennioides CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Rainbow Darter Etheostoma caeruleum CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Least Darter Etheostoma microperca CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Tessellated Darter Etheostoma olmstedi CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Eastern Silvery Minnow Hybognathus regius CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Chestnut Lamprey (Saskatchewan - Nelson River populations) Ichthyomyzon castaneus CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, SK
Bigmouth Buffalo (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence Populations) Ictiobus cyprinellus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Black Buffalo Ictiobus niger CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Brook Silverside Labidesthes sicculus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Green Sunfish Lepomis cyanellus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Alaskan Brook Lamprey Lethenteron alaskense CWS, DFO, NT, Parks
Striped Shiner Luxilus chrysocephalus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Redfin Shiner Lythrurus umbratilis CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Silver Chub (Saskatchewan - Nelson River populations) Macrhybopsis storeriana CWS, DFO, MB, Parks
Northern Pearl Dace Margariscus nachtiebi AB, BC, CWS, DFO, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK
River Chub Nocomis micropogon CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
River Shiner Notropis blennius AB, CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, SK
Ghost Shiner Notropis buchanani CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Bigmouth Shiner Notropis dorsalis CWS, DFO, MB, Parks
Rosyface Shiner Notropis rubellus CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Weed Shiner Notropis texanus CWS, DFO, MB, Parks
Margined Madtom Noturus insignis CWS, DFO, ON, Parks, QC
Blackside Darter Percina maculata CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, SK
Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Round Whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum AB, BC, CWS, DFO, FJMC, GRRB, HFTCC, MB, NB, NL, NT, NU, NWMB, ON, Parks, QC, SK, SRRB, YFWMB, YT
Flathead Catfish Pylodictis olivaris CWS, DFO, ON, Parks
Eastern Blacknose Dace Rhinichthys atratulus CWS, DFO, NB, ON, Parks, QC
Leopard Dace Rhinichthys falcatus BC, CWS, DFO, Parks
Western Blacknose Dace Rhinichthys obtusus CWS, DFO, MB, ON, Parks, SK
Bull Trout (Pacific populations) Salvelinus confluentus BC, CWS, DFO, Parks
Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush AB, CWS, DFO, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, Parks, QC, SK, YT
Longfin Smelt Spirinchus thaleichthys BC, CWS, DFO, Parks

Lichens (33)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Wright's Spotted Felt Lichen Dendriscosticta wrightii BC, CWS, Parks
Vole Felt Lichen Erioderma sorediatum BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Lichenoidium sirosiphoidium BC, CWS, NL, Parks
White Fringe Lichen Moelleropsis nebulosa CWS, NB, NL, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Parmeliella parvula BC, CWS, NL, NS, Parks
Powdered Moon Lichen (Eastern population) Sticta limbata CWS, NB, NS, Parks, QC
Arctic Orangebush Lichen Xanthaptychia aurantiaca CWS, NT, Parks
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Whiskered Millipede Lichen Anaptychia elbursiana AB, BC, CWS, Parks
Flexuous Golden Stubble Chaenotheca servitii CWS, NS, Parks
Hemlock Stubble Chaenothecopsis tsugae CWS, Parks
Desert Tumbleweed Lichen Circinaria hispida AB, BC, CWS, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Fuscopannaria ahlneri BC, CWS, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Fuscopannaria coralloidea BC, CWS, Parks
Desert Rock-scab Glypholecia scabra BC, CWS, NT, NU, Parks, SK
(common name not available) Pannaria tavaresii CWS, NS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Peltula euploca BC, CWS, Parks
Red Oak Stubble Phaeocalicium minutissimum CWS, NB, Parks, QC
Crannied Orangebush Lichen Seirophora contortuplicata AB, BC, CWS, NT, Parks, YT
(common name not available) Sticta canariensis CWS, ON, Parks
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
(common name not available) Bryoria carlottae BC, CWS, Parks
Mottled Horsehair Lichen Bryoria cervinula BC, CWS, NT, Parks
Rosin Whiskers Chaenothecopsis oregana AB, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Dermatocarpon dolomiticum CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Gypsoplaca macrophylla AB, BC, CWS, NT, Parks, YT
(common name not available) Heppia adglutianata CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Leptogium corticola CWS, NS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Leptogium hibernicum CWS, NS, Parks
(common name not available) Niebla cephalota BC, CWS, Parks
Ghost Antler Lichen Pseudevernia cladonia CWS, NB, NS, Parks, QC
Antler Lichen Pseudevernia consocians AB, CWS, MB, NS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Punctelia borreri CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Sclerophora amabilis BC, CWS, NB, Parks
(common name not available) Thyrea confusa BC, CWS, ON, Parks, QC

Marine fishes (14)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta BC, CWS, DFO, NT, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Chum Salmon (Skeena River populations) Oncorhynchus keta BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Chinook Salmon (Skeena River populations) Oncorhynchus tshawytscha BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Chinook Salmon (Yukon River and transboundary populations) Oncorhynchus tshawytscha BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean, YT
Atlantic Mackerel Scomber scombrus Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, Parks
Greenland Shark Somniosus microcephalus Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, Parks
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, Parks
American Shad Alosa sapidissima Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, NB, NS, Parks, PE, QC
Pacific Herring Clupea pallissii BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Yellowtail Flounder Limanda ferruginea Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, NB, NL, NS, Parks, PE
Pollock Pollachius virens Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, NB, NL, NS, Parks
Widow Rockfish Sebastes entomelas BC, CWS, DFO, NJFMC, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Shortspine Thornyhead Sebastolobus alascanus BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean

Marine mammals (9)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Guadalupe Fur Seal Arctocephalus townsendi CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Baird's Beaked Whale Berardius bairdii CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Pacific White-sided Dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Cuvier's Beaked Whale Ziphius cavirostris Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Hooded Seal Cystophora cristata Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, NU, NWMB, Parks
Bearded Seal Erignathus barbatus Arctic Ocean, CWS, DFO, FJMC, HFTCC, MB, NL, NT, NU, NWMB, ON, Parks, QC, YT
Sperm Whale Physeter macrocephalus CWS, DFO, NWMB, Parks
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Northern Elephant Seal Mirounga angustirostris BC, CWS, DFO, Parks, Pacific Ocean
Harp Seal Phoca groenlandica Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, CWS, DFO, NL, Parks

Molluscs (39)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Ashy Pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus BC, CWS, Parks
Big-tooth Whitelip Neohelix dentifera CWS, ON, Parks, QC
Boreal Awningclam Solemya borealis Atlantic Ocean, CWS, Parks
Bronze Pinecone Strobilops aeneus CWS, ON, Parks
Pyramid Dome Ventridens intertextus CWS, ON, Parks
Globose Dome Ventridens ligera CWS, ON, Parks
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Globe Siltsnail Birgella subglobosa CWS, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Bugle Sprite Micromenetus dilatatus CWS, NS, Parks
Boundary Mountainsnail Oreohelix subrudis limitaris AB, CWS, Parks
Blunt Albino Physa Physella gyrina athearni AB, CWS, Parks
Ornamented Peaclam Pisidium cruciatum CWS, ON, Parks
Corpulent Rams-horn Planorbella corpulenta CWS, MB, ON, Parks
Whiteaves's Capacious Rams-horn Planorbella corpulenta whiteavesi CWS, ON, Parks
Western Arctic Stagnicola Stagnicola kennicotti CWS, NT, NU, Parks
Loosely-coiled Valve Snail Valvata lewisi ontariensis CWS, ON, Parks
Flat Dome Ventridens suppressus CWS, ON, Parks
Velvet Wedge Xolotrema denotatum CWS, ON, Parks
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Spindle Lymnaea Acella haldemani CWS, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Slippershell Alasmidonta viridis CWS, ON, Parks
Slippershell Alasmidonta viridis CWS, ON, Parks
Pimpleback Cyclonaias pustulosa CWS, ON, Parks
Bark Snaggletooth Gastrocopta corticaria CWS, NB, ON, Parks, QC
Lake Superior Rams-horn Helisoma anceps royalense CWS, MB, ON, Parks
Flutedshell Lasmigona costata CWS, MB, ON, Parks, QC
Tidewater Mucket Leptodea ochracea CWS, NB, NS, Parks
Eastern Pearl Mussel Margaritifera margaritifera CWS, NB, NL, NS, Parks, PE, QC
Yellow Globelet Mesodon clausus CWS, ON, Parks
Rotund Physa Physella columbiana BC, CWS, Parks
Haldeman's Physa Physella concolor BC, CWS, Parks
Grain physa Physella hordacea BC, CWS, DFO, Parks
Twisted Physa Physella lordi AB, BC, CWS, Parks
Nuttall's Physa Physella nuttalli BC, CWS, Parks
Tiny Peaclam Pisidium insigne AB, BC, CWS, ON, Parks, PE
Slender Walker Pomatiopsis lapidaria CWS, ON, Parks
Mountain Marshsnail Stagnicola montanensis AB, CWS, Parks
Calabash Pondsnail Stagnicola walkeriana CWS, ON, Parks
Coldwater Pondsnail Stagnicola woodruffi CWS, ON, Parks
Deertoe Truncilla truncata CWS, ON, Parks
Purplecap Valvata Valvata perdepressa CWS, ON, Parks

Mosses (20)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Orkney Notchwort Anastrepta orcadensis BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Apotreubia hortoniae BC, CWS, Parks
Velenovsky's Moss Hilpertia velenovskyi BC, CWS, NT, NU, Parks
Woods Whipwort Mastigophora woodsii BC, CWS, Parks
(common name not available) Sphagnum cyclophyllum CWS, NS, Parks
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Great Bear Lake Sieve-tooth Moss Coscinodon arctolimnius CWS, NT, Parks
(common name not available) Gollania turgens BC, CWS, Parks, YT
(common name not available) Trematodon asanoi BC, CWS, Parks
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Pacific Volcano Moss Brachydontium olympicum BC, CWS, Parks, YT
(common name not available) Buxbaumia minakatae CWS, NL, NS, ON, Parks
Blunted Earwort Diplophyllum obtusatum CWS, NL, ON, Parks, QC
Schleicher's Silk Moss Entodon schleicheri AB, BC, CWS, NT, Parks
(common name not available) Fabronia ciliaris CWS, MB, Parks
Pygmy Pocket Moss Fissidens exilis BC, CWS, NS, ON, Parks, QC
River Scalewort Frullania riparia CWS, Parks, QC
Funaria Moss Funaria flavicans CWS, ON, Parks
Mountain Brook Moss Hygrohypnum montanum CWS, NB, NL, NS, Parks, PE, QC
Delicate Luster Moss Isopterygium tenerum CWS, NS, Parks
Porter's Twisted Moss Tortula porteri CWS, ON, Parks
(common name not available) Trematodon longicollis CWS, ON, Parks

Reptiles (12)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
No candidates currently listed
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Ring-necked Snake Diadophis punctatus CWS, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, QC
Smooth Greensnake Opheodrys vernalis CWS, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, PE, QC, SK
Plains Gartersnake Thamnophis radix AB, CWS, MB, Parks, SK
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Green Sea Turtle Chelonia mydas CWS, Parks
Northern Alligator Lizard Elgaria coerulea BC, CWS, Parks
Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle Lepidochelys kempii Atlantic Ocean, CWS, NS, Parks
Northern watersnake Nerodia sipedon sipedon CWS, ON, Parks, QC
DeKay's Brownsnake Storeria dekayi CWS, ON, Parks, QC
Red-bellied Snake Storeria occipitomaculata CWS, MB, NB, NS, ON, Parks, QC
Terrestrial Gartersnake Thamnophis elegans AB, BC, CWS, Parks
Northwestern Gartersnake Thamnophis ordinoides BC, CWS, Parks
Common Gartersnake Thamnophis sirtalis AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK

Terrestrial mammals (7)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Silver-haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK, YT
Eastern Red Bat Lasiurus borealis AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK
Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus AB, BC, CWS, MB, NB, NS, NT, ON, Parks, QC, SK, YT
Great Basin Pocket Mouse Perognathus parvus BC, CWS, Parks
Group 2 - Mid priority candidates
Dall's Sheep Ovis dallii ATK-SC, BC, CMN, CWS, NT, Parks, YT
Group 3 - Low priority candidates
Stone's Sheep Ovis dallii stonei ATK-SC, BC, CMN, CWS, Parks, YT
Western Spotted Skunk Spilogale gracilis BC, CWS, Parks

Vascular plants (11)

Group 1 - High priority candidates
Alpine Lady's-mantle Alchemilla alpina CWS, NL, Parks, QC
Smooth Clustered Sedge Carex aggregata CWS, ON, Parks
Black-edged Sedge Carex nigromarginata CWS, ON, Parks
Rough-leaved Aster Eurybia radulina BC, CWS, Parks
Pumpkin Ash Fraxinus profunda CWS, ON, Parks
Short-fruited Rush Juncus brachycarpus CWS, ON, Parks
Cleland's Evening-primrose Oenothera clelandii CWS, ON, Parks
California Sword Fern Polystichum californicum BC, CWS, Parks
Dune Goldenrod Solidago simplex CWS, NB, ON, Parks
Forked Bluecurls Trichostema dichotomum CWS, NS, ON, Parks, QC
Dwarf Western Trillium Trilium ovatum hibbersonii BC, CWS, Parks
Group 2 - mid priority candidates and group 3 - low priority candidates
An expanded vascular plants candidate list of over 500 vascular plants, grouped into two priority classes, is now available to the public in an excel worksheet file. This list is provided with the understanding that it is a working copy undergoing modification. In preparing the list, information from the General Status of Species in Canada review process, undertaken by all federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions, is taken into account when species are ranked for inclusion on the list.

Please contact the COSEWIC secretariat for a copy of the list at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

About us

The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) is an independent advisory panel to the Minister of Environment and Climate Change Canada that meets twice a year to assess the status of wildlife species at risk of extinction. Members are wildlife biology experts from academia, government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector responsible for designating wildlife species in danger of disappearing from Canada.

COSEWIC secretariat

Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment and Climate Change Canada
351 St. Joseph Blvd, 16th floor
Gatineau QC K1A 0H3

Telephone: 819-938-4125
Fax: 819-938-3984
Email: ec.cosepac-cosewic.ec@canada.ca